+(y)dX ~ +(y)mXş Structures Formed in Conjugation of Substantive Verb in South Azerbaijan Turkish Dialects
Necmettin Erbakan Üniversitesi Sosyal ve Beşeri Bilimler Fakültesi Türk Dili ve Edebiyatı Bölümü
Keywords: Turkish language, contemporary Turkish dialects, South Azerbaijani Turkish, substantive verb, language relations.
In South Azerbaijan Turkish dialects, +(y)dX ~ +(y)mXş structures are brought to nouns ending in vowels. Some of the names ending in vowels have developed by analogy with Persian -ῑ(ی). The -ῑ (ی) suffixes on which the analogy is based differ in terms of their sources. Some of these names ending in vowels in the dialects of South Azerbaijani Turkish are formed by analogy with the -ῑ(ی) suffixes used at the end of definite and indefinite names in Persian: adamıydı (< *adamıyıdı < *adami idi < *adamῑ idi) as in the word ‘was a man’. Some names ending in vowels have emerged by analogy from the suffix -ῑ(ی) known as infinitive ya. The infinitive ya of Persian corresponds to the function of the suffix +lXK in the Turkish language. In the dialects of South Azerbaijan Turkish, the suffix -ῑ was brought back to the nouns with +lXK noun making, by analogy. This development can be seen in the word (cengelliyiymiş (< *cengelliyiyimiş < *cengelliyi imiş < *cengelligi imiş < *cengelῑ imiş) ‘was woodland’. The +(y)dX ~ +(y)mXş constructs are also added to the possessive forms of var ‘present’ and yoḫ ‘absent’. The possessive forms of var ‘present’ and yoḫ ‘absent’ are based on the syntactic structures of Persian. An example of this can be illustrated by the word varıydı (< *varıyıdı < *varı idi) ‘there was’. Along with these, +(y)dX ~ +(y)mXş structures are attached to names that have taken the -ῑ(ی) suffix, which is called relation ya: This development can be observed in the example of zerdūşiymiş (< *zerdūşiyimiş < *zerdūşı̇ ̄ imiş) ‘was Zoroastrian’.